[above photos credit Razia Nasri]
I’m happy to finally be able to share our successes from out first field season. The entire progress report, including species list, is at the bottom of this post (below some fun photos from last year), but here is the capture summary:
2014 field season bird captures and recapture rates.
I can hardly believe it, but as I’m still processing our 1,793 captures from last year and it’s already time to get ready for year 2. Field season preparations are somewhere between “I’ve got it under control” and “HELP, I haven’t slept and three days and the items on my to-do list reproduce overnight!”
The team is in place, and it’s looking superb! Cindy and Luke are returning from the UK, which is FABULOUS, and we’ve got additional members from all over the globe: a French student studying in Singapore, a Spanish student studying in Norway, and an American coming from work in Thailand.
I’ve applied for 6 grants: one win and one loss and 4 still under review. But the big news is our crowdfunding campaign, starting the day before Earth Day. To get us through this year, we’ll need a little help in addition to all the generous donations from our volunteers. So far, everyone’s covering their own expenses, and I want to at least pay for station fees, food, and housing. It’s amazing how far a little money will go, so stay tuned to find out how to be part of our team by providing just a little support (and receiving a great Bornean handicraft as a thank-you).
Impacts of Logging on Avian Community Ecology and Genotypic Differentiation in the Danum Valley Conservation Area and Ulu-Segama Forest Reserve
Summary. The 2014 field season extended from June through August. We established six study plots, three each in primary forest and twice-logged forest. We conducted mist-netting on two transects in each plot, sampling a total of 6 days on each transect. We captured 1,421 individuals during the regular netting, and an additional 45 birds during ad hoc netting, employed to record dispersal and range distances. Ringed birds were recaptured 327 times, a rate of approximately 22%. This dataset, combined with future years, will allow an accurate assessment of population parameters that could not be obtained over a shorter time period.
Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected. This collection will become part of our genetic library and can be used to explain demographics of species in logged versus unlogged forest. We will able to determine whether immigration is unidirectional in logged forest, causing the areas to act as ecological “sinks.”
Our research is intended to help guide and inform logging management practices to protect species and biodiversity.
2014 Field Season: Study Design and Data Collection
We located six study plots in Danum Valley Conservation Area and Ulu-Segama Forest Reserve (Figure 1). Within each plot, we established two 200-m transects in each plots, each separated by 250 m from the nearest other transect. We captured birds using standardized mist netting protocols on the six line transects.
On each transect, we erected 15 mist-nets (12 x 2.7 m; 25 mm mesh size) end-to-end in a straight line. We sampled transects in pairs, opening the nets from 6:00 until 12:00 for three consecutive days. We repeated the entire set of plots three times in June, July, and August. At the end of the regular sampling, we set up two ad hoc transects in the same configuration as the existing transects and sampled the first for a single day and the second for two consecutive days.
We captured 1,421 individuals during the regular netting, and an additional 45 birds during ad hoc netting, employed to record dispersal and range distances (Table 1). Eighty-eight species were captured (Appendix A). Each bird was marked with a uniquely numbered metal leg-ring. Data related to vital rates was collected, including age, plumage, breeding status, moult, and sex. Morphologic metrics we recorded included wing chord, tarsus length, and bill depth.
Logged forest yielded 893 individuals, versus 573 in unlogged forest. We recaptured ringed birds 327 times. We collected blood samples for genetic analysis from 225 individuals of the most common 30 species captured.
Figure 1. Locations of 5 of the 6 study plots in primary and logged forest in Danum Valley and Ulu-Segama. Remaining plot is located off the map to the north.
Table 1. 2014 field season bird captures and recapture rates
Our high sample sizes and recapture rate will allow for very robust and accurate analyses after several years of data have been collected. We will compare vital rates and population parameters of primary forest understory communities to those in logged forest stands to reveal whether there are long-term impacts of logging on populations and their ecology. Specifically, this will allow us: (i) to determine the extent to which logged forests will retain species populations and diversity over long time periods, and (ii) to determine impacts of logging on site- and landscape-level ecological parameters, including dispersal, site fidelity, foraging range, and source/sink dynamics.
We will be able to determine whether logging impacts genotype as we continue to expand our genetic library with blood samples. In conjunction with this, we will morphologic results to determine whether differing environmental pressures at work in logged versus primary forest might exert influences that drive morphological divergence in traits.
Appendix A. Bird captured in Danum Valley during 2014 field season.
Chalcophaps indica Emerald Dove
Harpactes diardii Diard’s trogon
Harpactes duvaucelii Scarlet-rumped trogon
Harpactes orrhophaeus Cinnamon-rumped trogon
Centropus rectunguis Short-toed coucal
Lacedo pulchella Banded kingfisher
Ceyx erithaca Black-backed kingfisher
Alcedo meninting Blue-eared kingfisher
Alcedo euryzona Blue-banded kingfisher
Sasia abnormis Rufous piculet
Blythipicus rubiginosus Maroon woodpecker
Meiglyptes tukki Buff-necked woodpecker
Reinwardtipicus validus Orange-backed woodpecker
Calorhamphus fuliginosus Brown barbet
Megalaima mystacophanos Red-throated barbet
Calyptomena viridis Green broadbill
Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos Black-and-red broadbill
Pitta baudii Blue-headed pitta
Pitta sordida Hooded pitta
Pitta ussheri Black-headed pitta
Rhipidura javanica Pied fantail
Rhipidura perlata Spotted fantail
Hypothymis azurea Black-naped monarch
Terpsiphone paradisi Asian paradise flycatcher
Prinia flaviventris Yellow-bellied prinia
Pycnonotus melanoleucos Black-and-white bulbul
Pycnonotus atriceps Black-headed bulbul
Pycnonotus eutilotus Puff-backed bulbul
Pycnonotus plumosus Olive-winged bulbul
Pycnonotus simplex Cream-vented bulbul
Pycnonotus brunneus Red-eyed bulbul
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos Spectacled bulbul
Tricholestes criniger Hairy-backed bulbul
Alophoixus bres Grey-cheeked bulbul
Alophoixus phaeocephalus Yellow-bellied bulbul
Ixos malaccensis Streaked bulbul
Iole olivacea Buff-vented bulbul
Orthotomus atrogularis Dark-necked tailorbird
Orthotomus sericeus Rufous-tailed tailorbird
Orthotomus ruficeps Ashy tailorbird
Pellorneum capistratum Blacked-capped babbler
Trichastoma rostratum White-chested babbler
Trichastoma bicolor Ferruginous babbler
Malacocincla sepiaria Horsfield’s babbler
Malacocincla malaccensis Short-tailed babbler
Malacopteron magnirostre Moustached babbler
Malacopteron affine Sooty-capped babbler
Malacopteron cinereum Scaly-crowned babbler
Malacopteron magnum Rufous-crowned babbler
Pomatorhinus montanus Chestnut-backed scimitar-babbler
Ptilocichla leucogrammica Bornean wren-babbler
Kenopia striata Striped wren-babbler
Napothera atrigularis Black-throated wren-babbler
Stachyris poliocephala Grey-headed babbler
Stachyris leucotis White-necked babbler
Stachyris maculata Chestnut-rumped babbler
Stachyris erythroptera Chestnut-winged babbler
Macronous bornensis Bold-striped tit-babbler
Macronous ptilosus Fluffy-backed tit-babbler
Alcippe brunneicauda Brown fulvetta
Zoothera interpres Chestnut-capped thrush
Philentoma pyrhoptera Rufous-winged philentoma
Philentoma velata Maroon-breasted philentoma
Copsychus stricklandii White-crowned shama
Trichixos pyrropygus Rufous-tailed shama
Enicurus ruficapillus Chestnut-naped forktail
Enicurus leschenaulti White-crowned forktail
Rhinomyias umbratilis Grey-chested jungle-flycatcher
Ficedula dumetoria Rufous-chested flycatcher
Cyornis turcosus Malaysian blue flycatcher
Cyornis caerulatus Large-billed blue flycatcher
Hypothymis azurea Black-naped monarch
Terpsiphone paradisi Asian paradise-flycatcher
Irena puella Asian fairy bluebird
Chloropsis cyanopogon Lesser green leafbird
Culicicapa ceylonensis Grey-headed canary-flycatcher
Dicrurus paradiseus Greater racket-tailed drongo
Prionochilus maculatus Yellow-breasted flowerpecker
Prionochilus xanthopygius Yellow-rumped flowerpecker
Dicaeum trigonostigma Orange-bellied flowerpecker
Anthreptes simplex Plain sunbird
Anthreptes singalensis Ruby-cheeked sunbird
Anthreptes malacensis Brown-throated sunbird
Hypogramma hypogrammicum Purple-naped sunbird
Aethopyga siparaja Crimson sunbird
Arachnothera longirostra Little spiderhunter
Arachnothera affinis Streaky-breasted spiderhunter
Lonchura leucogastra White-bellied munia