Rare bird at Danau Girang (Kinabatangan Wildlife Refuge)

I’m on the Kinabatangan River doing the ornithology module of the Cardiff University field course, as I do every year (within the Danum Valley field season), and am just stopping by to post a photo of a sacred kingfisher I netted today.  It’s a rare migrant from Australia, with only a few eBird records for Sabah.  I’ve never even seen one before, so this was quite a thrill!  Two weeks in the fragmented riverine forest of the Kinabatangan offers an interesting contrast to the primary lowland dipterocarp forest of Danum Valley. Both places are rich in wildlife, but here at Danau Girang Field Centre, within the Kinabatangan Wildlife Reserve, crazy numbers of species all squeeze into the narrow riparian zone and we commonly see orangutans, proboscis monkeys, Bornean gibbons, pygmy elephants, civets, and even cats.

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Season 3 is underway!

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Here’s your overdue update from the field. The team is in place and working hard! High water (last year’s drought is over) has prevented us from reaching some sites yet, but we’ve kept busy and have added new transects to the study. My large and highly skilled team enables me to sample three transects concurrently, 45 nets at a time, which is compensating for the expected year-to-year drop in new captures. As well, we will learn more about bird movement with the addition of these transects.

We’ve already captured some “firsts” for this project: banded pitta, hooded pitta, pale blue flycatcher.  Scroll down for photos.  Netting on a new “ad  hoc” transect is underway as I write this; I’m on my way to the Kinabatangan to teach the Cardiff University field course, so my crew is out without me and I’m anxiously awaiting news of today’s captures.  The transect ended up high on a ridge, which could mean capturing species that normally occur in a higher stratum than our nets.  I’ll be sure to share anything exciting.

We’re only halfway through the first round (of three) site visits, so plenty more to come.  Enjoy the photos (click on the thumbnails to expand images), and thanks for stopping by Field Notes!

Season 2 in the Bag

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Hello, readers! I’m so happy to be able to report the end of another successful field season. This year saw 880 new captures and 351 recaptures (including both within-year and between-year recaptures).  At the bottom of this post is a species list, roughly in the order of most-to-fewest individuals captured.

The season had the best weather I’ve ever experienced in the tropics – reasonably moderate humidity, drought (not great for the rivers but convenient for work), and beautiful starry nights. My team was extraordinary! With Malaysian, French, Spanish, and British nationals from universities in England, Singapore, and Norway, there was plenty of diversity. Even more abundant were talent, enthusiasm, cleverness, and good humor. I can only hope for some of them to return. A series of small disasters occurred with the vehicle (major mechanical, lack of diesel, some flat tires), but they were all overcome without the work suffering. We finished up in time to spend a day taking a group of hugely smart and enthusiastic Operation Raleigh folks out ringing; a nice way to end the season. A few photos are below.  Many more on the Facebook page, where it’s less time-consuming to post.

Yes, there is now a Facebook page: Borneo Rainforest Project. Please give it a like and a follow! I’ll be posting lots of photo albums there. Feel free to post requests for whatever information you want or photos you’d like to see.

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I’d also like to share some news about next season. I’ve received a small grant from the Fresno Chaffee Zoo Wildlife Conservation Fund for the coming year. While it’s not much, it feels great to have the project recognized by them and may even help convince more zoos (many of which have such grant programs) to support it. In addition, University of Sheffield will provide some funding.

Grant-writing continues, and the very fun job of looking at two years of photos (not kidding about that – it’s the first step in discovering and deciphering molt strategies).  I have an enormous collection of photos, so let me know if you want to see anything (a particular species (bird or other), forest shots, city/town, field center, people).

As always, thank you for stopping by Field Notes!

Suzanne

Little spiderhunter
Purple-naped sunbird
Gray-headed babbler
Emerald dove
Chestnut-winged babbler
Yellow-bellied bulbul
Hairy-backed bulbul
Furruginous babbler
Short-tailed babbler
Rufous piculet
Fluffy-backed tit-babbler
Spectacled bulbul
Scaly-crowned babbler
White-crowned shama
Large-billed blue flycatcher
Yellow-breasted flowerpecker
Black-capped babbler
Horsfield’s babbler
Oriental dwarf kingfisher
Gray-cheeked bulbul
Brown fulvetta
Pied fantail
Plain sunbird
Rufous-crowned babbler
White-chested babbler
Asian paradise flycathcer
Black-and-white bulbul
Sooty-crowned babbler
Striped wren-babbler
Black-naped monarch
Puff-backed bulbul
Rufous-chested flycatcher
White-crowned forktail
Black-throated wren-babbler
Chestnut-capped thrush
Chestnut-naped forktail
Rubycheek sunbird
Black-headed bulbul
Black-headed pitta
Blue-headed pitta
Chestnut-rumped babbler
Dark-necked tailorbird
Red-eyed bulbul
Yellow-rumped flowerpecker
Blue-eared kingfisher
Cinnamon-rumped trogon
Cream-vented bulbul
Lesser green leafbird
Rufous-tailed tailorbird
Rufous-winged philentoma
Spotted fantail
Blue-banded kingfisher
Bornean wren-babbler
Green broadbill
Rufous-tailed shama
Red-throated sunbird
Streaky-breasted spiderhunter
Verditer flycatcher
Black-and-red broadbill
Bronzed drongo
Crested goshawk
Diard’s trogon
Gray-chested jungle flycatcher
Greater rachet-tailed drongo
Hairy bulbul
Moustached babbler
Maroon-breasted philetoma
Spectacled spiderhunter
Thick-billed spiderhunter
White-necked babbler
Asian fairy bluebird
Ashy tailorbird
Brown barbet
Buff-necked woodpecker
Rufous-fronted babbler
Brown-throated sunbird
Buff-vented bulbul
Black-and-white bulbul
Orange-backed woodpecker
Crimson sunbird
Malaysian blue flycatcher
Streaked bulbul
Yellow-bellied prinia
Maroon woodpecker
Orange-bellied flowerpecker
Olive-backed woodpecker
Olive-winged bulbul
White-bellied munia

Two Weeks on the Kinabatangan River

Cardiff Univ students and DG staff and scientists.

Cardiff Univ students and DG staff and scientists.

Every year since 2012 I’ve had the opportunity to teach ornithological field methods to Cardiff University students at Danau Girang Field Centre (DGFC) on the famous Kinabatangan River. This site, a former Sabah Wildlife Department outpost, is now a research and educational center within a protected wildlife refuge. The facility consists of a laboratory, offices, a small library, kitchen, and living quarters for staff, students, and scientists. The surrounding environment is fragmented floodplain forest, palm oil plantations, and a few small settlements. The river and its forested banks act as a travel corridor (as well as permanent home) for an astounding array of wildlife, including proboscis monkey; long-tailed and pig-tailed macaque; Hose’s, maroon, and silvered langur; Bornean gibbon; orangutan; tarsier; slow loris; crocodile; monitor lizard; pygmy elephant; clouded leopard, marbled cat, and leopard cat; civets, otters, Malay badgers, and other small carnivores; sun bear; and a mind-boggling diversity of bird, insect, reptile, and amphibian species.

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The site is accessed by boat from the town of Batu Putih, and takes at least a day to travel from Danum Valley. I usually end up hitch-hiking the main part of the journey, as I’ve yet to encounter the proper bus.  Hitch-hiking here consists (for me) of standing in the blazing sun on the side of the road with my pack waiting for one of the mythical buses to come by, giving up almost immediately, and waving in a friendly manner at the cars passing. This results in someone stopping to offer a ride within minutes. It’s really not a bad way to travel here; all my rides have been friendly, interesting people who just want to chat with a foreigner (all have refused fuel money). Last year was probably the most interesting ride – a group of men who greeted me with “Have you ever been to the Philippines?” If you Google kidnapping in Borneo and Philippines, you’ll understand why this is terrifying-slash-hilarious (given that it was a joke). As far as I could figure out, they were police on a long drive home from a conference, starting to fall asleep, and needed a random foreigner to help them battle the boredom of the long journey. But I digress.

Veterinarian Sergio studying monitoring lizards

Veterinarian Sergio studying monitoring lizards

Mist-netting is a challenge at DGFC; low capture numbers have me constantly moving and adding nets.  But it’s been a good year, with some highlights in the photos. Probably the best part of 2015 here has been the assistance of Yusri, a 15-year-old boy whose family lives and works at the center. Yusri has been helping me in the field since I started here, but I was astonished at his advancements in the past year. This kid watches me do something once, and performs that task flawlessly and efficiently from then on. He showed up at 5:30 every day and worked until he was certain I didn’t need further help, and he was fasting all the while (for Ramadan). He’s great at imitating bird calls, too. I was thrilled to be able to give him a small stipend (primarily for his hard work, but secondarily to discourage him from allowing another researcher to poach him).

Yusri setting up nets

Yusri setting up nets

Yusri’s younger brother Igo (named after the Toyota Vigo he was born in! – although I don’t know what happened to the “V”) is only 5, but he’s informed us that he is studying hornbills and has several radio-collared.

Igo and I take a break

Igo and I take a break

Other highlights of this year have been a very close-up encounter with a tarsier, a couple of fantastic sightings of orangutans, a site record in the nets (plain sunbird), three huge crocs spotted from the boat, and a face-to-face with a macaque with anger management issues. But always, the best part of DGFC is the staff and resident researchers. Every evening I find myself laughing until my sides hurt. English, Spanish, French, Malay, and an assortment of other languages float through the dining hall, the growing group of staff’s children is irresistible, and everyone has an interesting story to tell. Inevitably, some people finish their work and leave each year, and saying goodbye to them when they return to their corner of the world is the small tragedy of a wonderful life.

Orangutan

Orangutan

Western tarsier

Western tarsier

Now, it’s back to Danum Valley (and internet) for the next two months, and soon another guest blog from THAT magnificent place. Thanks for checking out Field Notes!

Happy trails-

Suzanne

Guest Blogger – Research Assistant Luke Nelson

Luke is back for another season and has written for you about being a Borneo Rainforest Project Returnee.  Take it away, Luke (more photos follow the text):

Luke with blue-headed pitta

Luke with blue-headed pitta

Our second field season is now well under way with 300 birds caught
with many recaptures from last year. In the next week we will have
finished the first of three visits to all of our sites, which seems to
have come round super fast!

I’ve come back for a second field season for many reasons but mainly
because I really enjoy living and working at Danum Valley and find the
work we do extremely rewarding. Also I’m pretty sure Suzanne would be
lost in the forest looking for our transects if I wasn’t here… [NOTE FROM SUZANNE: I’m only letting this part stay in because it’s, uh… true.]
Working and living in the rainforest is a fantastic experience. The
forest is such a dynamic place and is always changing, not only since
our last field season with entire net lanes being overgrown or
flooded, but even overnight as we occasionally find new treefalls
blocking our path. Every day in the forest you are pretty much
guaranteed to see or hear something new, making it such a stimulating
environment to work in. Just two days ago Emelie and I saw Proboscis
monkeys in the trees above the end of our transect, a species usually
found in mangroves and riverine forest, and rarely recorded in Danum
Valley!

The opportunity to see and catch some cool, exotic birds and gain experience was
what first attracted me to the project, but coming back a second time
I’m now interested in finding and explaining patterns we see in the
more common, arguably slightly less exciting birds. Now I’m familiar
with all the species, I’m starting to notice individual differences in
the birds, such as possible sexual dimorphism in body size or plumage
features that could be used for aging. Still, nothing beats the thrill
and privilege of handling rare and exquisite birds, such as last week
when we caught two rare endemics right next to each other in the net
(Bornean Wren-Babbler and Blue-headed Pitta – possibly my favourite
bird we catch). Compared to ringing in the UK where a lot is known
about many of the birds, the work we are doing here in Borneo is much
more exploratory and what we record and learn about the birds is
possibly completely unknown. This makes it a really exciting
experience for me and a fantastic learning opportunity, as to
correctly ring and age the birds we have to go back to basics
measuring the bird’s legs to decide which size ring to put on, and
thinking about the process of moult and what patterns different ages
might display [NOTE FROM SUZANNE: To those of you familiar with my obsession with moult and aging, you can see that my work here is done – a convert!], as opposed to looking features up in a book.

However to actually do the ringing requires a lot of hard work, both
physically and logistically. We have to get all of our equipment to
our transects which is a chore as all our sites are a 40 minute+
journey away either by foot or in the truck. This leads to all sorts
of issues from car troubles to locked gates and sketchy bridges. Our
equipment consists of our mist-nets and 4m long aluminium poles, which
unsurprisingly are not designed for easy delivery through the jungle
due to their tendency to get caught between vines. The fact that we
have to take about 60 to each site, which together weigh quite a bit,
and the routes to all of our sites seem to be purposefully chosen to
include as many hills as possible mean this is no mean feat!

Living in the rainforest has it’s downsides too, mainly the heat and
the food (or lack of). Everyday in the field we end up with our
clothes drenched in sweat, usually in solidarity though – if everyone
smells, no one smells right? (although Cindy always seems to remain
impeccably clean for the work we do). It does mean that not having hot
showers isn’t a bad thing, a cold shower after being in the field for
ten hours is the best. Unsurprisingly food choice is limited in the
middle of the rainforest meaning that coupled with our hunger from
long hours of tough work we soon start fantasising about food. We
often have long conversations about what we are going to eat when we
return to civilisation, and get excited at any opportunity to eat
something we don’t normally have, such as when someone returns from
town with gifts from the bakery (hint, hint Suzanne)!  [NOTE FROM SUZANNE: Hint received 🙂]

I’m thrilled to be back working on the Borneo Rainforest Project and
it’s been so much fun this year, and we still have many more weeks to
go! Suzanne has already been mentioning the fact I’m returning next (unbeknownst to me), so we’ll just have to watch this space…
year (unbeknownst to me), so we’ll just have to watch this space…

Luke and the data form

Luke and the data form

Large-billed blue flycatcher

Large-billed blue flycatcher

Scary

Scary

Emilie and black-capped babbler

Emilie and black-capped babbler

The dreaded net poles

The dreaded net poles

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Back in the Field: Year 2

CIMG2136We’ve been at Danum Valley Field Centre for two weeks and the returnees (Luke, Cindy, and me) feel as if we never left (great wildlife, cool birds, heat, hard work, and poor internet). We’ve complete just two of 18 plot visits and have caught about 150 birds, including recaptures from last year.  Most exciting bits and bobs so far: a slow loris outside my Tiong (cabin), moon rat on the trail, great argus and loads of hornbills.  Biggest frustration: diesel is no longer available at the field centre (and no longer provided by the Royal Society).  I’m even more grateful to our supporters now, as we have this one unexpected expense.

The fig trees are fruiting and are full of birds and monkeys. My field crew is absolutely incredible, and I couldn’t be happier with them.  And it’s Ramadan, so the generator comes on from 3 until 5 AM (for preparing the pre-dawn meal), when we are getting up and out, and that is really fantastic.  Transects were not too overgrown, so we were able to clear them ourselves. And I hesitate to say it, but the weather has been almost pleasant most of the time, due to the rain every afternoon. It’s the dry season, and el nino, so you never know what to expect.  I’m going to leave it here, with a few photos from the first netting visits.

Holy cow, another researcher just came in and told us she just saw a clouded leopard cross the trail right in front of her! See a photo of one below, along with some of the team, a few birds we’ve caught, and a lizard hanging from a tree with another lizard in its mouth. No idea why that happened (we saw them fall from higher up), but even crazier is that they both turned color as we watched, each to the other’s original color.

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IMG_0232IMG_0206IMG_0165IMG_0149clouded leopard

The Borneo Rainforest Project – Update and Thanks

Hello, friends and supporters!  I want to thank everyone who stepped up to support us in our crowdfunding effort.  We are overflowing with gratitude.  People were so generous! We soared past our first goal, which was to raise enough for the gear we need for the year. Granted, we set the goal very modestly because we didn’t know what to expect, and IndieGoGo takes a considerably larger chunk if you don’t reach your goal. Some people wanted to contribute monthly throughout the season or yearly throughout the project, so IndieGoGo will keep the site active (Borneo Rainforest Project). This is wonderful news for us. We were especially stunned and moved by the number of strangers who contributed.  That’s a sign that people really consider your project valuable, and so I know they care about the forest.

We ordered all the things we need to obtain in the States, and it will all be here in time. So far, here’s what we have:

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Plus the promise of one and potentially two laptops.  These items are so important, and we just didn’t have the funds for them.  I’d still like to cover station fees, housing, food, and in-country travel for the RAs, so we are going to continue to try to reach $10,000. And a set of Microsoft Office is needed (UPDATE – THE SOFTWARE HAS BEEN DONATED!! 🙂 ).

We leave in a week and arrive at Danum Valley Field Centre on 12 June, and hopefully the internet will be working.  Look for an update as soon as I can catch my breath.

Thanks again, everyone – from Suzanne and the entire team.

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Crowdfunding Progess

One week in and we’ve received 15 generous donations. I’m so grateful for the support. Although we won’t receive the funds until the campaign closes, I went ahead and ordered field bags for each of the 2 teams. I got nylon (waterproof) messenger-type bags (on sale, of course, with free shipping) and the RAs who regularly volunteer to carry the gear are delighted. It seems like a small thing, but it means a lot. Last year we used plastic bags from the airport duty-free shop, and they tore and leaked. The handles wouldn’t fit on a shoulder, and they eventually broke anyway. They’re a real hassle when you’re slipping and sliding up and down the muddy hills, avoiding snagging the nets, and trying to stay upright. These new bags are going to make everyday life so much easier. Another $7 bought us a tarp to sit on – bright blue so we can see the leeches coming. And another 3 bucks netted (no pun intended) 2 used thermal bags from the local Salvation Army store for securing blood samples in the field. Go ahead, laugh, they’re light-years better than last year!

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Crowdfunding Campaign Has Launched!

I’m so happy to be celebrating Earth Day in a meaningful way this year.  Forgive me for waxing sentimental, but this may be the most I’ve ever believed in the importance and value of something, and I feel privileged to be able to devote my life to it right now.  I’m so grateful to everyone who is sharing the link and visiting to the page to watch the video.

I’ll post our progress frequently. Thank you all so much for your support of this very important work

http://igg.me/at/borneorainforestproject

Suzanne

flanged male

Borneo Rainforest Project – Season 2

clouded leopard baby

[above photos credit Razia Nasri]

I’m happy to finally be able to share our successes from out first field season.  The entire progress report, including species list, is at the bottom of this post (below some fun photos from last year), but here is the capture summary:

2014 field season bird captures and recapture rates.

New captures Recaptures Recapture rate
Unlogged 573 120 20.9%
Logged 893 207 23.2%
Total 1466 327 22.3%

I can hardly believe it, but as I’m still processing our 1,793 captures from last year and it’s already time to get ready for year 2. Field season preparations are somewhere between “I’ve got it under control” and “HELP, I haven’t slept and three days and the items on my to-do list reproduce overnight!”

The team is in place, and it’s looking superb!  Cindy and Luke are returning from the UK, which is FABULOUS, and we’ve got additional members from all over the globe: a French student studying in Singapore, a Spanish student studying in Norway, and an American coming from work in Thailand.

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I’ve applied for 6 grants: one win and one loss and 4 still under review. But the big news is our crowdfunding campaign, starting the day before Earth Day.  To get us through this year, we’ll need a little help in addition to all the generous donations from our volunteers. So far, everyone’s covering their own expenses, and I want to at least pay for station fees, food, and housing. It’s amazing how far a little money will go, so stay tuned to find out how to be part of our team by providing just a little support (and receiving a great Bornean handicraft as a thank-you).

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Progress Report

Impacts of Logging on Avian Community Ecology and Genotypic Differentiation in the Danum Valley Conservation Area and Ulu-Segama Forest Reserve

Summary. The 2014 field season extended from June through August. We established six study plots, three each in primary forest and twice-logged forest.  We conducted mist-netting on two transects in each plot, sampling a total of 6 days on each transect. We captured 1,421 individuals during the regular netting, and an additional 45 birds during ad hoc netting, employed to record dispersal and range distances.  Ringed birds were recaptured 327 times, a rate of approximately 22%. This dataset, combined with future years, will allow an accurate assessment of population parameters that could not be obtained over a shorter time period.

Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected.  This collection will become part of our genetic library and can be used to explain demographics of species in logged versus unlogged forest.  We will able to determine whether immigration is unidirectional in logged forest, causing the areas to act as ecological “sinks.”

Our research is intended to help guide and inform logging management practices to protect species and biodiversity.

2014 Field Season: Study Design and Data Collection

We located six study plots in Danum Valley Conservation Area and Ulu-Segama Forest Reserve (Figure 1). Within each plot, we established two 200-m transects in each plots, each separated by 250 m from the nearest other transect. We captured birds using standardized mist netting protocols on the six line transects.

On each transect, we erected 15 mist-nets (12 x 2.7 m; 25 mm mesh size) end-to-end in a straight line.  We sampled transects in pairs, opening the nets from 6:00 until 12:00 for three consecutive days. We repeated the entire set of plots three times in June, July, and August.  At the end of the regular sampling, we set up two ad hoc transects in the same configuration as the existing transects and sampled the first for a single day and the second for two consecutive days.

We captured 1,421 individuals during the regular netting, and an additional 45 birds during ad hoc netting, employed to record dispersal and range distances (Table 1). Eighty-eight species were captured (Appendix A).  Each bird was marked with a uniquely numbered metal leg-ring. Data related to vital rates was collected, including age, plumage, breeding status, moult, and sex. Morphologic metrics we recorded included wing chord, tarsus length, and bill depth.

Logged forest yielded 893 individuals, versus 573 in unlogged forest.  We recaptured ringed birds 327 times.  We collected blood samples for genetic analysis from 225 individuals of the most common 30 species captured.

 

Figure 1. Locations of 5 of the 6 study plots in primary and logged forest in Danum Valley and Ulu-Segama. Remaining plot is located off the map to the north.

 

Table 1. 2014 field season bird captures and recapture rates

New captures Recaptures Recapture rate
Unlogged 573 120 20.9%
Logged 893 207 23.2%
Total 1466 327 22.3%

 

Project Outcomes

Our high sample sizes and recapture rate will allow for very robust and accurate analyses after several years of data have been collected.  We will compare vital rates and population parameters of primary forest understory communities to those in logged forest stands to reveal whether there are long-term impacts of logging on populations and their ecology. Specifically, this will allow us: (i) to determine the extent to which logged forests will retain species populations and diversity over long time periods, and (ii) to determine impacts of logging on site- and landscape-level ecological parameters, including dispersal, site fidelity, foraging range, and source/sink dynamics.

We will be able to determine whether logging impacts genotype as we continue to expand our genetic library with blood samples.  In conjunction with this, we will morphologic results to determine whether differing environmental pressures at work in logged versus primary forest might exert influences that drive morphological divergence in traits.

Appendix A. Bird captured in Danum Valley during 2014 field season.

Chalcophaps indica                                        Emerald Dove           

Harpactes diardii                                           Diard’s trogon                      

Harpactes duvaucelii                                     Scarlet-rumped trogon

Harpactes orrhophaeus                                 Cinnamon-rumped trogon

Centropus rectunguis                                                Short-toed coucal

Lacedo pulchella                                             Banded kingfisher                

Ceyx erithaca                                                  Black-backed kingfisher      

Alcedo meninting                                           Blue-eared kingfisher

Alcedo euryzona                                             Blue-banded kingfisher       

Sasia abnormis                                               Rufous piculet                      

Blythipicus rubiginosus                                 Maroon woodpecker                       

Meiglyptes tukki                                             Buff-necked woodpecker    

Reinwardtipicus validus                                 Orange-backed woodpecker

Calorhamphus fuliginosus                             Brown barbet

Megalaima mystacophanos                           Red-throated barbet

Calyptomena viridis                                       Green broadbill                    

Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos                   Black-and-red broadbill      

Pitta baudii                                                     Blue-headed pitta

Pitta sordida                                                   Hooded pitta 

Pitta ussheri                                                   Black-headed pitta

Rhipidura javanica                                         Pied fantail                

Rhipidura perlata                                           Spotted fantail                      

Hypothymis azurea                                        Black-naped monarch

Terpsiphone paradisi                                     Asian paradise flycatcher    

Prinia flaviventris                                          Yellow-bellied prinia

Pycnonotus melanoleucos                             Black-and-white bulbul       

Pycnonotus atriceps                                      Black-headed bulbul

Pycnonotus eutilotus                                     Puff-backed bulbul

Pycnonotus plumosus                                                Olive-winged bulbul

Pycnonotus simplex                                       Cream-vented bulbul

Pycnonotus brunneus                                                Red-eyed bulbul

Pycnonotus erythropthalmos                       Spectacled bulbul     

Tricholestes criniger                                      Hairy-backed bulbul

Alophoixus bres                                              Grey-cheeked bulbul

Alophoixus phaeocephalus                             Yellow-bellied bulbul           

Ixos malaccensis                                             Streaked bulbul

Iole olivacea                                                    Buff-vented bulbul

Orthotomus atrogularis                                Dark-necked tailorbird        

Orthotomus sericeus                                     Rufous-tailed tailorbird

Orthotomus ruficeps                                     Ashy tailorbird

Pellorneum capistratum                               Blacked-capped babbler     

Trichastoma rostratum                                White-chested babbler        

Trichastoma bicolor                                      Ferruginous babbler

Malacocincla sepiaria                                    Horsfield’s babbler

Malacocincla malaccensis                              Short-tailed babbler

Malacopteron magnirostre                           Moustached babbler

Malacopteron affine                                      Sooty-capped babbler

Malacopteron cinereum                                Scaly-crowned babbler       

Malacopteron magnum                                 Rufous-crowned babbler    

Pomatorhinus montanus                                  Chestnut-backed scimitar-babbler

Ptilocichla leucogrammica                            Bornean wren-babbler       

Kenopia striata                                              Striped wren-babbler

Napothera atrigularis                                   Black-throated wren-babbler

Stachyris poliocephala                                   Grey-headed babbler          

Stachyris leucotis                                           White-necked babbler

Stachyris maculata                                        Chestnut-rumped babbler

Stachyris erythroptera                                  Chestnut-winged babbler    

Macronous bornensis                                                Bold-striped tit-babbler

Macronous ptilosus                                        Fluffy-backed tit-babbler

Alcippe brunneicauda                                    Brown fulvetta

Zoothera interpres                                         Chestnut-capped thrush

Philentoma pyrhoptera                                 Rufous-winged philentoma 

Philentoma velata                                          Maroon-breasted philentoma

Copsychus stricklandii                                   White-crowned shama

Trichixos pyrropygus                                                 Rufous-tailed shama

Enicurus ruficapillus                                     Chestnut-naped forktail

Enicurus leschenaulti                                                White-crowned forktail

Rhinomyias umbratilis                                   Grey-chested jungle-flycatcher

Ficedula dumetoria                                        Rufous-chested flycatcher

Cyornis turcosus                                            Malaysian blue flycatcher

Cyornis caerulatus                                         Large-billed blue flycatcher

Hypothymis azurea                                        Black-naped monarch

Terpsiphone paradisi                                     Asian paradise-flycatcher

Irena puella                                                    Asian fairy bluebird

Chloropsis cyanopogon                                  Lesser green leafbird

Culicicapa ceylonensis                                    Grey-headed canary-flycatcher

Dicrurus paradiseus                                       Greater racket-tailed drongo

Prionochilus maculatus                                 Yellow-breasted flowerpecker

Prionochilus xanthopygius                            Yellow-rumped flowerpecker

Dicaeum trigonostigma                                Orange-bellied flowerpecker

Anthreptes simplex                                        Plain sunbird

Anthreptes singalensis                                   Ruby-cheeked sunbird

Anthreptes malacensis                                   Brown-throated sunbird

Hypogramma hypogrammicum                    Purple-naped sunbird

Aethopyga siparaja                                        Crimson sunbird

Arachnothera longirostra                             Little spiderhunter

Arachnothera affinis                                     Streaky-breasted spiderhunter

Lonchura leucogastra                                   White-bellied munia